|HORNBECK OFFSHORE SERVICES INC /LA filed this Form 10-K on 02/28/2018|
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2017
For the Transition Period from to
Commission File Number 001-32108
Hornbeck Offshore Services, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
103 Northpark Boulevard, Suite 300
Covington, Louisiana 70433
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No x
The aggregate market value of the Common Stock held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the Common Stock was last sold as of the last day of registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter is $97,502,624.
The number of outstanding shares of Common Stock as of January 31, 2018 is 37,147,663 shares.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant’s definitive 2018 proxy statement, anticipated to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the close of the Registrant’s fiscal year, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
HORNBECK OFFSHORE SERVICES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2017
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Forward Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements,” as contemplated by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, in which the Company discusses factors it believes may affect its performance in the future. Forward-looking statements are all statements other than historical facts, such as statements regarding assumptions, expectations, beliefs and projections about future events or conditions. You can generally identify forward-looking statements by the appearance in such a statement of words like “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “remain,” “should,” “will,” or other comparable words or the negative of such words. The accuracy of the Company’s assumptions, expectations, beliefs and projections depends on events or conditions that change over time and are thus susceptible to change based on actual experience, new developments and known and unknown risks. The Company gives no assurance that the forward-looking statements will prove to be correct and does not undertake any duty to update them. The Company’s actual future results might differ from the forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a variety of reasons, including impacts from changes in oil and natural gas prices in the U.S. and worldwide; continued weakness in demand and/or pricing for the Company’s services through and beyond the maturity of any of the Company's long-term debt; unplanned customer suspensions, cancellations, rate reductions or non-renewals of vessel charters, or vessel management contracts, or failures to finalize commitments to charter or manage vessels; continued weak capital spending by customers on offshore exploration and development; the inability to accurately predict vessel utilization levels and dayrates; sustained weakness in the number of deepwater and ultra-deepwater drilling units operating in the GoM or other regions where the Company operates; the effect of inconsistency by the United States government in the pace of issuing drilling permits and plan approvals in the GoM or other drilling regions; any negative impact on the Company’s ability to successfully complete the remainder of its current vessel newbuild program on-time; the inability to successfully market the vessels that the Company owns, is constructing or might acquire; the government's cancellation or non-renewal of the management, operations and maintenance contracts for vessels; an oil spill or other significant event in the United States or another offshore drilling region that could have a broad impact on deepwater and other offshore energy exploration and production activities, such as the suspension of activities or significant regulatory responses; the imposition of laws or regulations that result in reduced exploration and production activities or that increase the Company’s operating costs or operating requirements; environmental litigation that impacts customer plans or projects; disputes with customers; bureaucratic, administrative or operating barriers that delay vessels in foreign markets from going on-hire; administrative barriers to exploration and production activities in Brazil; disruption in the timing and/or extent of Mexican offshore activities; age or other restrictions imposed on our vessels by customers; unanticipated difficulty in effectively competing in or operating in international markets; less than anticipated subsea infrastructure and field development demand in the GoM and other markets affecting our MPSVs; sustained vessel over capacity for existing demand levels in the markets in which the Company competes; economic and geopolitical risks; weather-related risks; upon a return to improved operating conditions, the shortage of or the inability to attract and retain qualified personnel, when needed, including vessel personnel for active vessels or vessels the Company may reactivate or acquire; any success in unionizing the Company's U.S. fleet personnel; regulatory risks; the repeal or administrative weakening of the Jones Act or adverse changes in the interpretation of the Jones Act; drydocking delays and cost overruns and related risks; vessel accidents, pollution incidents or other events resulting in lost revenue, fines, penalties or other expenses that are unrecoverable from insurance policies or other third parties; unexpected litigation and insurance expenses; other industry risks; fluctuations in foreign currency valuations compared to the U.S. dollar and risks associated with expanded foreign operations, such as non-compliance with or the unanticipated effect of tax laws, customs laws, immigration laws, or other legislation that result in higher than anticipated tax rates or other costs; or the inability of the Company to refinance or otherwise retire certain funded debt obligations that come due in 2019, 2020 and 2021; or the potential for any impairment charges that could arise in the future and that would reduce the Company’s consolidated net tangible assets which, in turn, would further limit the Company’s ability to grant certain liens,
make certain investments, and incur certain debt under the Company’s senior notes indentures and the New Credit Facility. In addition, the Company’s future results may be impacted by adverse economic conditions, such as inflation, deflation, or lack of liquidity in the capital markets, that may negatively affect it or parties with whom it does business resulting in their non-payment or inability to perform obligations owed to the Company, such as the failure of customers to fulfill their contractual obligations or the failure by individual lenders to provide funding under the Company’s New Credit Facility, if and when required. Further, the Company can give no assurance regarding when and to what extent it will effect common stock or note repurchases. Should one or more of the foregoing risks or uncertainties materialize in a way that negatively impacts the Company, or should the Company’s underlying assumptions prove incorrect, the Company’s actual results may vary materially from those anticipated in its forward-looking statements, and its business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected and, if sufficiently severe, could result in noncompliance with certain covenants of the Company's existing indebtedness. Additional factors that you should consider are set forth in detail in the “Risk Factors” section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K as well as other filings the Company has made and will make with the Securities and Exchange Commission which, after their filing, can be found on the Company’s website, www.hornbeckoffshore.com.
The Company makes references to certain industry-related terms in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. A glossary and definitions of such terms can be found in Item 9B—Other Information on page 48.
Hornbeck Offshore Services, Inc. was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in 1997. In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, references to “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” or like terms refer to Hornbeck Offshore Services, Inc. and its subsidiaries, except as otherwise indicated. Hornbeck Offshore Services, Inc. is a leading provider of marine transportation, subsea installation and accommodation support services to exploration and production, oilfield service, offshore construction and U.S. military customers. Since our establishment, we have primarily focused on providing innovative technologically advanced marine solutions to meet the evolving needs of the deepwater and ultra-deepwater energy industry in domestic and select foreign locations. Throughout our history, we have expanded our fleet of vessels primarily through a series of new vessel construction programs, as well as through acquisitions of existing vessels. We maintain our headquarters at 103 Northpark Boulevard, Suite 300, Covington, Louisiana, 70433; our telephone number is (985) 727-2000.
We own and operate one of the youngest and largest fleets of U.S.-flagged, new generation OSVs and MPSVs. In late 2011, we commenced our fifth OSV newbuild program, which also includes the construction of MPSVs. Since that time, we have grown our new generation fleet from 51 OSVs and four MPSVs to 62 OSVs and eight MPSVs, after accounting for the sale of five OSVs in 2014 and 2015. Upon completion of the last two vessels currently contracted to be delivered under this newbuild program, our expected fleet will be comprised of 62 OSVs and ten MPSVs. Together, these vessels support the deep-well, deepwater and ultra-deepwater activities of the offshore oil and gas industry. Such activities include oil and gas exploration, field development, production, construction, installation, IRM, well-stimulation and other enhanced oil recovery activities. We have also developed a specialized application of our new generation OSVs for use by the U.S. military. Our new generation OSVs and MPSVs have enhanced capabilities that allow us to more effectively support the premium drilling and installation equipment and facilities required for the offshore deep-well, deepwater and ultra-deepwater energy industry. We are one of the top two operators of domestic high-spec new generation OSVs and MPSVs and one of the top four operators of such equipment worldwide, based on DWT. Our fleet is among the youngest in the industry, with a weighted-average age, based on DWT, of nine years.
While we have historically operated our vessels predominately in the U.S. GoM, we have diversified our market presence and now operate in three core geographic markets: the GoM, Mexico and Brazil. In addition to our core markets, we frequently operate in other foreign regions on a project or term charter basis. We have recently operated in the Middle East, the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea and in other locations in Latin America, including Nicaragua, Guyana, Trinidad and Argentina. We have further diversified by providing specialized vessel solutions to non-oilfield customers, such as the United States military as well as oceanographic research and other customers that utilize sophisticated marine platforms in their operations. In addition, we have provided vessel management services for other vessel owners, such as crewing, daily operational management and maintenance activities. We also operate a shore-base support facility located in Port Fourchon, Louisiana. See "Item 2-Properties" for a listing of our shoreside support facilities.
Although all of our vessels are physically capable of operating in both domestic and international waters, approximately 85% are qualified under Section 27 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920, as amended, or the Jones Act, to engage in the U.S. coastwise trade. The two remaining vessels being constructed under our fifth OSV newbuild program will be eligible for Jones Act coastwise trading privileges. Foreign owned, flagged, built or crewed vessels are restricted in their ability to conduct U.S. coastwise trade and are typically excluded from such trade in the GoM. Of the public company OSV peer group, we own the largest fleet of Jones Act-qualified, new generation OSVs and MPSVs, which we believe offers us a competitive advantage in the GoM. From time to time, we may elect to reflag certain of our vessels to the flag of another nation. Since 2009, we have reflagged seven Jones Act-qualified OSVs to Mexican and other flags, including one under Brazilian registry. Once a Jones Act-qualified vessel is reflagged or a new vessel is foreign flagged, it permanently loses the right to engage in U.S. coastwise trade.
We intend to continue our efforts through up cycles and down cycles to maximize stockholder value through our long-term return-oriented growth strategy. We will, as opportunities arise, acquire or construct additional vessels, as well as divest certain assets that we consider to be non-core or otherwise not in line with our long-term strategy or prevailing industry trends.
DESCRIPTION OF OUR BUSINESS
The Deepwater Offshore Energy Industry
The modern quest to explore for and produce energy resources located offshore began in the 1940s. While these offshore operations began in shallow waters, relatively close to shore, technological advances have permitted them to migrate to ever deeper waters and well depths. Until the late 1970s, most offshore activity was technologically and logistically restricted to that which was accessible on the continental shelf, or waters of up to about 500 feet of depth. Since that time, a number of advances have opened drilling regions in deepwater. The initial push into deeper waters was facilitated through the development of “floating” drilling units that could be positioned over a drilling site without being fixed to the seafloor. Petrobras pioneered these techniques in Brazil beginning in the late 1970s as it lacked an accessible “shallow water” continental shelf. The first deepwater project in the United States Gulf of Mexico was completed in 1993 in nearly 3,000 feet of water by Shell Oil Company. That Shell facility produced a then unheard of 46,000 barrels per day from a reservoir tapped at 25,000 feet. Today, exploration and production activities have pushed into the ultra-deepwater, where wells are routinely drilled in water depths of more than 8,000 feet, the deepest having been drilled in approximately 10,000 feet of water.
In addition to the ability to operate in very deep water, technological advances have also allowed hydrocarbon resources to be detected, drilled for and produced at extreme well depths. “Pre-salt” discoveries in Brazil are being drilled and produced in waters exceeding 5,000 feet and at well depths of more than 35,000 feet. In 2014, Chevron announced first oil from its Jack/St. Malo facility in the GoM, which is expected to produce previously undetectable lower tertiary hydrocarbons at a rate of 94,000 barrels per day from deposits more than 20,000 feet below the seabed situated in 7,000 feet of water. In addition to contending with extreme deepwater and deep well depths, these projects present challenges involving high temperatures and pressures within reservoirs and the associated difficulties of safely bringing those resources to the surface and then transporting them to shoreside locations. Despite these challenges, today deepwater production accounts for approximately 85% percent of all offshore production in the United States. The GoM production is expected to account for 16% of total forecast U.S. crude oil production in both 2018 and 2019.
The energy industry has had success in many deepwater regions throughout the world. Deepwater drilling efforts are underway in the Mediterranean Sea, the Indian Ocean and Asia. However, the so-called “golden triangle” of deepwater activity is comprised of deposits found offshore West Africa, the Eastern coast of South America - dominated by Brazil and more recently, Guyana - and the GoM. Our core markets are the U.S. GoM, Mexico and Brazil.
As large international oil companies were pushed out of participating in many regions of the world by national oil companies intent upon retaining for themselves the economic benefits of national exploitation, the deepwater GoM grew in significance. The deepwater GoM is among the most abundant hydrocarbon regions in the world. Political stability in the United States and accessibility of deepwater lease blocks allows major oil companies to plan, execute and finance the significant long-term commitments that deepwater success requires. While the scale and complexity associated with deepwater projects is considerable, the significant size of the resource discoveries allows companies to replenish reserves on a large scale from relatively few projects. Unlike most on shore exploration and production projects, deepwater projects require long-lead times to plan and execute, but also enjoy long production lives once online. For instance, the first exploratory wells at the Jack/St. Malo fields were drilled in 2003 and 2004 and first oil was not produced until 2014. Now online, Chevron projects that the Jack/St. Malo fields are expected to produce an estimated 500 million oil equivalent barrels over 30 years. Consequently, short term fluctuations in oil and gas prices typically do not have the same impact on sanctioned deepwater projects as such fluctuations may have on other on shore and continental shelf projects. As a result of the severity and length of current on-going commodity price declines, some previously sanctioned deepwater projects have, nevertheless, been deferred and the pace of newly sanctioned projects in the deepwater GoM has slowed considerably since 2015.
Emerging opportunities for the deepwater offshore energy industry are presented by recent changes in Mexico and Brazil, two of our core markets, which have both recently expanded access to their deepwater regions to foreign operators. In December 2013, the Mexican congress ended PEMEX's 75 year-old monopoly on drilling activities in Mexico and voted in favor of allowing the government to grant contracts and licenses for exploration and production of oil and gas to foreign firms, which previously had been prohibited under Mexico’s constitution. In December 2016, Mexico conducted its first ever deepwater auctions, which drew bids from several major integrated oil companies on 10 deepwater opportunities. In January 2018, Mexico completed a second round of deepwater auctions, awarding 19 of 29 deepwater blocks. Mexican officials have indicated their intention to proceed with additional deepwater auctions in the
second half of 2018.
Brazil, through its state-owned national oil company, Petrobras, has been a pioneer in deepwater drilling and remains a dominant player in the global deepwater energy industry. Petrobras claims approximately 9.5 billion barrels of proven deepwater and ultra-deepwater resources, the vast majority of which are located in pre-salt formations, which were the driving force behind an ambitious national plan to dramatically increase production by 2022 to 3.6 million barrels per day. These plans were sidelined by declines in the price of oil combined with a wide reaching corruption probe involving Petobras. In light of these difficulties being experienced by Petrobras, in 2016, the Brazilian Congress determined to re-open the vast Brazilian pre-salt regions to foreign operators. Brazil is scheduled to host deepwater auctions for pre-salt oil blocks in June 2018.
The Subsea Oilfield
Deepwater successes have driven further innovation around the infrastructure required to produce and transport ashore the abundant resources that have been discovered. In shallower regions, once hydrocarbons are discovered, they are typically produced by installing a fixed platform over the well site onto which are installed all of the equipment and infrastructure necessary to produce the hydrocarbons and move them ashore through pipelines. Platforms also provide a locale from which well maintenance and similar activities can be performed. The size, pressures, temperatures and water depths of deepwater hydrocarbon deposits require enormous amounts of infrastructure to develop, produce and maintain their wells. These challenges have pushed the development of technologies to allow infrastructure to be placed directly onto the seafloor, as opposed to a fixed platform. The process of building out this subsea oilfield requires the use of vessels to transport infrastructure to location, install infrastructure to subsea points and inspect, repair and maintain it all over the multi-decade life of the field. When hydrocarbons are brought to the surface, they are brought from multiple subsea locations through pipelines to a single deepwater floating "top-side" production facility. These "top-side" production facilities take years to design, engineer, transport, install and, often, cost billions of dollars and represent a significant source of demand for vessel services during their installation and commissioning. More recently, deepwater producers have capitalized on their existing deepwater infrastructure to gain efficiencies through the use of so-called "tie-backs". A tie-back allows a deepwater well to be produced without having to install a new top-side facility by "tying the well back" to an existing top-side facility accessible to the well location. Tie-backs require the installation of subsea infrastructure to connect the well to the remote "top-side" facility.
Depiction of a GoM Subsea Deepwater Oilfield
OSVs primarily serve exploratory and developmental drilling rigs and production facilities and support offshore and subsea construction, installation, IRM and decommissioning activities. OSVs differ from other ships primarily due to their cargo-carrying flexibility and capacity. In addition to transporting deck cargo, such as pipe or drummed material and equipment, OSVs also transport liquid mud, potable and drilling water, diesel fuel, dry bulk cement and personnel between shore-bases and offshore rigs and production facilities. Deepwater environments require OSVs with capabilities that allow them to more effectively support drilling and related subsea construction projects that occur far from shore, in deepwater and increasingly at extreme well depths. In order to best serve these projects, we have designed our various classes of new generation vessels in a manner that seeks to maximize their liquid mud and dry bulk cement capacities, as well as their larger areas of open deck space. Deepwater operations also require vessels having dynamic positioning, or anchorless station-keeping capability, driven primarily by safety concerns that preclude vessels from physically mooring to floating deepwater installations. DP systems have experienced steady increases in technology over time with the highest DP rating currently being DP-3. The number following the DP notation generally indicates the degree of redundancy built into the vessel’s systems and the range of usefulness of the vessel in deepwater construction and subsea operations. Higher numbers represent greater DP capabilities. Today, deepwater drilling operations in the GoM overwhelmingly prefer a DP-2 notation and a vessel with 2,500 DWT capacity or greater. We consider these vessels to be high-spec new generation OSVs. Currently, 55 of our vessels are DP-2 and two are DP-3. The two remaining MPSVs contracted to be constructed under our fifth OSV newbuild program are expected to be DP-2. Ultra-deepwater projects, which occur in waters of greater than 5,000 feet, are driving a need for DP-2 vessels with very large capacities. The distance of these projects from shore, together with their water and well depths dictate the use of massive volumes of bulk drilling materials and related supplies. The OSVs that have been delivered as part of our fifth OSV newbuild program are among the largest in the world. With DWT capacities of 5,500 DWT to 6,200 DWT, we believe these ultra high-spec vessels provide our ultra-deepwater drilling customers vessel solutions that help them to maximize efficiencies and improve the logistical challenges prevalent in their projects.
Vessels that do not carry a DP-2 notation or have less than 2,500 DWT capacity typically operate in more shallow U.S. waters or in foreign locations in which DP-2 has not yet emerged as the dominant standard. Currently, 18 of our vessels are low-spec, comprising 13% of our fleet by DWT. The remaining 87% of our fleet is considered high-spec, including roughly 60% of our overall fleet that is ultra high-spec.
Two ultra high-spec HOSMAX OSVs
MPSVs also support the deepwater activities of the energy industry. MPSVs are distinguished from OSVs in that they are more specialized and often significantly larger vessels that are principally used for IRM activities, such as the subsea installation of well heads, risers, jumpers, umbilicals and other equipment placed on the seafloor. MPSVs are also utilized in connection with the setting of pipelines, the commissioning and de-commissioning of offshore facilities, the maintenance and/or repair of subsea equipment and the intervention of such wells, well testing and flow-back operations and other sophisticated deepwater operations. To perform these various functions, MPSVs are or can be equipped with a variety of lifting and deployment systems, including large capacity cranes, winches or reel systems, well intervention equipment, ROVs and accommodation facilities. The typical MPSV is outfitted with one or more deepwater cranes
employing active heave compensation technology, one or more ROVs and expansive accommodations for the offshore crew, including customer personnel. MPSVs can also be outfitted as a flotel to provide accommodations to large numbers of offshore construction and technical personnel involved in large-scale offshore projects, such as the commissioning of a floating offshore production facility. When in a flotel mode, the MPSV provides living quarters for personnel, catering, laundry, medical services, recreational facilities and offices. In addition, flotels coordinate and help to provide the facilities necessary for the offshore workers being accommodated to safely move from the vessel to other offshore structures being supported through the use of articulated gangways that allow personnel to "walk to work." Generally, MPSVs command higher dayrates than OSVs due to their significantly larger relative size and versatility, as well as higher construction and operating costs.
370 class MPSVs
We have devised MPSVs that, in addition to the array of services described above, are also capable of being utilized to transport deck or bulk cargoes in capacities exceeding most other new generation OSVs. We own and operate two proprietary 370 class DP-2 new generation MPSVs with such capabilities. These MPSVs have approximately double the deadweight and three times the liquid mud barrel-capacity of one of our 265 class new generation OSVs and more than four times the liquid mud barrel-capacity of one of our 240 class new generation OSVs. Moreover, with their large tanks, these MPSVs have assisted in large volume deepwater well testing and flow-back operations, as well as supporting large drilling operations in remote or harsh conditions. Both of our 370 class MPSVs have certifications by the USCG that permit Jones Act-qualified operations as a supply vessel, industrial/construction vessel and as a petroleum and chemical tanker under subchapters “L”, “I”, “D”, and “O”, respectively. We believe that these vessels are not only the largest supply vessels in the world, but are also the only vessels in the world to have received all four of these certifications.
400 class and 310 class MPSVs
Until recently, due to a lack of Jones Act-qualified MPSVs, many customers would charter an OSV to carry equipment to location, which was then installed by a foreign flag MPSV. By eliminating the need for two vessels, we believe our customers will improve efficiencies and mitigate operational risks. Our Jones Act-qualified MPSVs are equipped with a heave-compensated knuckle-boom crane, helideck, accommodations for approximately 90-100 persons and are suitable for two or more work-class ROVs. Moreover, our Jones Act-qualified MPSVs are also equipped with below-deck cargo tanks, allowing them to expand their mission utility to include services more typically provided by OSVs.
We are scheduled to take delivery of two 400 class MPSVs in the second and third quarters of 2019. Because our 400 class and 310 class MPSVs are Jones Act-qualified, we expect that they will enable our customers to transport equipment from shore to the installation site to be installed by the MPSV without needing to use a second (domestic) vessel for transport like foreign-flagged MPSVs are required to do. We believe that, once delivered, the 400 class MPSVs will be the largest and most capable Jones Act-qualified MPSVs available in the market.
Rendering of Planned HOS 400' Class MPSV
In April 2015, we also outfitted one of our 310 class OSVs that was placed in service under our ongoing newbuild program as a 310 class MPSV in flotel configuration. This U.S.-flagged, Jones Act-qualified MPSV includes a 35-ton knuckle-boom crane, a motion-compensated gangway and accommodations for 194 persons. Being Jones Act-qualified gives it mission flexibility that foreign flag flotels lack in the GoM.
We also operate the HOS Iron Horse and HOS Achiever, which are 430 class DP-3 new generation MPSVs. A DP-3 notation requires greater vessel and ship-system redundancies. DP-3 systems also include separate vessel compartments with fire-retardant walls for generators, prime movers, switchboards and most other DP components. These 430 class MPSVs are designed to handle a variety of global offshore energy applications, many of which are not dependent on the exploratory rig count. They are excellent platforms for those specialty services described above for our 400 and 310 class MPSVs with the exception of handling liquid cargoes. The HOS Iron Horse and the HOS Achiever are not U.S.-flagged vessels, however, they can engage in certain legally permissible operations in the U.S. that do not constitute coastwise trade. The HOS Achiever is currently configured as a flotel with accommodations for up to 270 personnel onboard, including the vessel's marine crew, hotel and catering staff. These accommodations allow this vessel to support the commissioning of deepwater installations around the world. Because flotel services do not typically involve the transportation of passengers, foreign-flag vessels, such as our 430 class MPSVs, can provide this service in the U.S.
We believe that our reputation for safety and technologically superior vessels, combined with our size and scale in certain core markets relative to our public company OSV peer group, enhance our ability to compete for work awarded by major oil companies, independent oil companies, national oil companies and the U.S. government, who are among our primary customers. These customers demand a high level of safety and technological advancements to meet the more stringent regulatory standards in the GoM. As our customers’ needs and requirements become more demanding, we expect that smaller vessel operators may struggle to meet these standards.
The following table provides information, as of February 7, 2018, regarding our owned fleet of 62 new generation OSVs, eight MPSVs and two MPSVs yet to be delivered under our fifth OSV newbuild program, as well as our managed fleet of four new generation OSVs that serve the U.S. Navy.
TBD—to be determined
We own long-term lease rights to two adjacent shore-base facilities located in Port Fourchon, Louisiana, named HOS Port. Port Fourchon’s proximity to the deepwater GoM provides a strategic logistical advantage for servicing drilling rigs, production facilities and other offshore installations and sites. We also utilize HOS Port as a shoreside facility for performing vessel maintenance, outfitting and other in-the-water shipyard activities. Developed as a multi-use facility, Port Fourchon has historically been a land base for offshore oil support services and the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port, or LOOP. According to industry sources, Port Fourchon services nearly all deepwater rigs and almost half of all shallow water rigs in the GoM. The HOS Port facility has approximately one year remaining on its current lease and three additional five-year renewal options on each parcel. The combined acreage of HOS Port is approximately 60 acres with total waterfront bulkhead of nearly 3,000 linear feet. HOS Port not only supports our existing fleet and customers’ deepwater logistics requirements, but it underscores our long-term commitment to and our long-term outlook for the deepwater GoM.
OSVs and MPSVs operate worldwide, but are generally concentrated in relatively few offshore regions with high levels of exploration and development activity, such as the GoM, the North Sea, Southeast Asia, West Africa, Latin America and the Middle East. Our core geographic markets are the GoM, Mexico and Brazil. In these markets we provide services to several major integrated oil companies as well as mid-size and large independent oil companies with deepwater and ultra-deepwater activities and to national oil companies such as PEMEX and Petrobras. We also occasionally operate in select international markets, which have included the rest of Latin America, West Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea and the Caribbean basin. We are often subcontracted by other oilfield service companies, both in the GoM and internationally, to provide a new generation fleet that enables them to render offshore oilfield services, such as well stimulation or other enhanced oil recovery activities, diving and ROV operations, construction, installation, inspection, maintenance, repair and decommissioning services. We also provide a specialized application of our new generation OSVs for use by the United States military.
While there is some vessel migration between regions, key factors such as mobilization costs, vessel suitability and government statutes prohibiting foreign-flagged vessels from operating in certain waters, or coastwise cabotage laws such as the Jones Act, can limit the migration of OSVs. Because some MPSVs are generally utilized for non-cargo operations, they are less limited by cabotage laws. Demand for OSVs, as evidenced by dayrates and utilization rates, is primarily related to offshore oil and natural gas exploration, development and production activity. Such activity is influenced by a number of factors, including the actual and forecasted price of oil and natural gas, the level of drilling permit activity, capital budgets of offshore exploration and production companies, and repair and maintenance needs in the deepwater oilfield.
Offshore exploration and production activities are increasingly focused on deep wells (as defined by total well depth rather than water depth), whether on the Outer Continental Shelf or in the deepwater or ultra-deepwater. These types of wells require high-specification equipment, which has driven the recent and nearly completed newbuild cycle for drilling rigs and for OSVs. There were 43 floating rigs under construction or on order on February 7, 2018 and, as of that date, there were options outstanding to build four additional floating rigs. In addition, on that date, there were 91 high-spec jack-up rigs under construction or on order worldwide, and there were options outstanding to build 15 additional high-spec jack-up rigs. Most, if not all, of these rigs were ordered prior to the downturn in oil prices that has persisted since late 2014. Consequently, the market for deepwater drilling rigs is expected to be over-supplied for the forseeable future. This oversupply of rigs may drive down the cost of contracting a drilling rig, with the result that more rigs are employed, which could positively impact utilization of supply vessels. Each drilling rig working on deep-well projects typically requires more than one OSV to service it, and the number of OSVs required is dependent on many factors, including the type of activity being undertaken, the location of the rig and the size and capacity of the OSVs. During normal operating conditions, based on the historical data for the number of floating rigs and OSVs working, we believe that two to four OSVs per rig are required in the GoM and even more OSVs are necessary per rig in Brazil where greater logistical challenges result in longer vessel turnaround times to service drill sites. Typically, during the initial drilling stage, more OSVs are required to supply drilling mud, drill pipe and other materials than at later stages of the drilling cycle. In addition, generally more OSVs are required the farther a drilling rig is located from shore. Under normal weather conditions, the transit time to deepwater drilling rigs in the GoM and Brazil can typically range from six to 24 hours for a new generation vessel. In Brazil, transit time for a new generation vessel to some of the newer, more logistically remote deepwater drilling rig locations are more appropriately measured in days, not hours. In addition to drilling rig support, deepwater and ultra-deepwater exploration and production activities should result in the expansion of other specialty-service offerings for our vessels. These markets include subsea construction support, installation, IRM work, and life-of-field services, which include well-stimulation, workovers and decommissioning.
Our charters are the product of either direct negotiation or a competitive proposal process, which evaluates vessel capability, availability and price. Our primary method of chartering in the GoM is through direct vessel negotiations with our customers on either a long-term or spot basis. In the international market, we sometimes charter through local entities in order to comply with cabotage or other local requirements. Some charters are solicited by customers through international vessel brokerage firms, which earn a commission that is customarily paid by the vessel owner. Our operations and management agreement with the U.S. Navy's Military Sealift Command was a sole source selection based upon certain capabilities unique to the Company that were developed while the applicable vessels were chartered to the Navy. All of our charters, whether long-term or spot, are priced on a dayrate basis, whereby for each day that the vessel is under contract to the customer, we earn a fixed amount of charter-hire for making the vessel available for the customer’s use. Some of the long-term contracts for our vessels and all of our government, including national oil company, charters contain early termination options in favor of the customer; however, some have fees designed to discourage early termination. Long-term charters sometimes contain provisions that permit us to increase our dayrates in order to be compensated for certain increased operational expenses or regulatory changes.
The offshore support vessel industry is highly competitive. Competition primarily involves such factors as:
Our high-spec OSVs are predominately U.S.-flagged vessels, which qualify them under the Jones Act to engage in domestic coastwise trade. The Jones Act restricts the ability of vessels that are foreign-built, foreign-owned, foreign-crewed or foreign-flagged from engaging in coastwise trade in the United States. The transportation services typically provided by OSVs constitute coastwise trade as defined by the Jones Act. See "Item 1A-Risk Factors" for a more detailed discussion of the Jones Act. Consequently, competition for our services in the GoM is largely restricted to other U.S. vessel owners and operators, both publicly and privately held. We believe that we operate the second largest fleet by DWT of new generation Jones Act-qualified OSVs in the United States. Internationally, our OSVs compete against other U.S. owners, as well as foreign owners and operators of OSVs. Some of our international competitors may benefit from a lower cost basis in their vessels, which are usually not constructed in U.S. shipyards, as well as from lower crewing costs and favorable tax regimes. While foreign vessel owners cannot engage in U.S. coastwise trade, some cabotage laws in other parts of the world permit temporary waivers for foreign vessels if domestic vessels are unavailable. We and other U.S. and foreign vessel owners have been able to obtain such waivers in the foreign jurisdictions in which we operate.
Many of the services provided by MPSVs do not involve the transportation of merchandise and therefore are generally not considered coastwise trade under U.S. and foreign cabotage laws. Consequently, our MPSVs and the HOSMAX MPSVs being constructed under our fifth OSV newbuild program face competition from both foreign-flagged vessels and U.S.-flagged vessels for non-coastwise trade activities. In addition, since 2009, owners and operators of Jones-Act qualified MPSVs, such as ourselves, have challenged interpretations of the Jones Act issued by Customs and Border Protection, or CBP, that we believe erroneously allow foreign MPSVs to be used in U.S. coastwise trade. In 2009 and again in 2017, CBP announced proposed modifications to or revocations of these interpretations, but subsequently withdrew both of those proposals. In 2017, trade organizations representing the owners and operators of Jones-Act qualified MPSVs, as well as U.S. shipyards that build them, sued CBP on account of the continued existence of Jones Act interpretations that are inconsistent with the statute. That suit is pending in Federal District Court for the District of Columbia, Captain Paul Radtke, et. al. v. U.S Bureau of Customs and Border Protection, et. al. Civil Action No. 17-2412. If successful, that litigation may reduce competition that our Jones-Act qualified MPSVs face from foreign MPSVs that are currently allowed by CBP to engage in coastwise trade.
Competition in the MPSV industry is significantly affected by the particular capabilities of a vessel to meet the requirements of a customer’s project as well as price. While operating in the GoM, our MPSVs are required to utilize U.S. crews while foreign-owned vessels have historically been allowed to employ non-U.S. mariners, often from low-wage nations. U.S. crews are often more expensive than foreign crews. Also, foreign MPSV owners may have more favorable tax regimes than ours. Consequently, prices for foreign-owned MPSVs in the GoM are often lower than prices we can charge. Finally, some potential MPSV customers are also owners of MPSVs that will compete with our vessels. During the recent downturn, many foreign MPSVs have departed the GoM and most MPSVs operating in the GoM are Jones-Act qualified. If market conditions improve and the CBP letter rulings continue to allow foreign vessels to engage in coastwise trade, we might face significant price competition from the owners of these foreign vessels that enjoy lower manning and tax burdens.
We continue to observe intense scrutiny by our customers on the safety and environmental management systems of vessel operators. As a consequence, we believe that deepwater customers are increasingly biased towards companies that have demonstrated a financial and operational commitment and capacity to employ such systems. We believe this trend will, over time, make it difficult for small enterprises to compete effectively in the deepwater OSV and MPSV markets. Additionally, we have observed less willingness by operators to utilize DP-1 vessels in deepwater operations in the GoM. This trend will likely result in the retirement of non-DP vessels and a migration of DP-1 vessels to non-deepwater regions, such as the shelf, and certain international regions.
Although some of our principal competitors are larger or have more extensive international operations than we do, we believe that our operating capabilities and reputation for quality and safety enable us to compete effectively with other fleets in the market areas in which we operate or intend to operate. In particular, we believe that the relatively young age and advanced features of our OSVs and MPSVs provide us with a competitive advantage. The ages of our high-spec new generation OSVs range from one year to 19 years with a weighted-average fleet age, based on DWT, of six years. In fact, approximately 90% of our active new generation OSVs have been placed in-service since January 1, 2008. The average age of the industry’s conventional U.S.-flagged OSV fleet is over 35 years and the industry's domestic new generation OSV fleet is approximately ten years. We believe that most of these older vessels are cold-stacked and many of them have been or will be permanently retired in the next few years due to physical and economic obsolescence. Worldwide competition for new generation vessels has been impacted in recent years by the increase in newbuild OSVs placed in-service to address greater customer interest in deep-well, deepwater and ultra-deepwater drilling activity and the decline in industry activity due to low oil prices. Upon completion of our fifth OSV newbuild program, we expect to own a
fleet of 72 Upstream vessels of which 82% will be DP-2 or DP-3 with a weighted-average fleet age, based on DWT, of ten years in 2019.
Over the past three years, there have been several, and we expect further, formal and informal restructurings of owners and operators of OSVs and MPSVs that compete with us in the U.S. and globally. Two of our publicly traded domestic competitors emerged from Chapter 11 proceedings in 2017. Companies that have undergone restructurings may have less debt and obligations associated with servicing their debt than companies that have not undergone restructurings. Additionally, fresh start accounting rules might also provide advantages that impact financial results that such restructured companies report. Because we have not initiated measures of this kind, we may face stiffer competition from restructured companies and may also report lower financial results relative to such restructured companies.
Our success depends in large part on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled and qualified personnel. Our inability to hire, train and retain a sufficient number of qualified employees could impact our ability to manage, maintain and grow our business. In crewing our vessels, we require skilled employees who can perform physically demanding work and operate complex vessel systems. As the result of our vessel stacking strategy, we have reduced our mariner headcount significantly. When these stacked vessels return to service, we will need to hire and train additional mariners to operate such vessels.
Our customers are generally limited to large, independent, integrated or nationally-owned energy companies. These firms are relatively few in number. The percentage of revenues attributable to a customer in any particular year depends on the level of oil and natural gas exploration, development and production activities undertaken by such customer, the availability and suitability of our vessels for the customer’s projects or products and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. For the year ended December 31, 2017, Hess Corporation, Military Sealift Command and Royal Dutch Shell plc (including worldwide affiliates) each accounted for 10% or more of our consolidated revenues. For a discussion of significant customers in prior periods, see Note 13 to our consolidated financial statements.
Environmental Laws and Regulations
Our operations are subject to a variety of federal, state, local and international laws and regulations regarding the discharge of materials into the environment or otherwise relating to environmental protection. The requirements of these laws and regulations have become more complex and stringent in recent years and may, in certain circumstances, impose strict, joint and several liability, rendering a company liable for environmental damages and remediation costs without regard to negligence or fault on the part of such party. Aside from possible liability for damages and costs including natural resource damages associated with releases of oil or hazardous materials into the environment, such laws and regulations may expose us to liability for the conditions caused by others or even acts of ours that were in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations at the time such acts were performed. Failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations may result in the imposition of administrative, civil and criminal penalties, revocation of permits, issuance of corrective action orders and suspension or termination of our operations. Moreover, it is possible that future changes in the environmental laws, regulations or enforcement policies that impose additional or more restrictive requirements or claims for damages to persons, property, natural resources or the environment could result in substantial costs and liabilities to us and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. We have performed what we consider to be appropriate environmental due diligence in connection with our operations and, where possible, we have taken all necessary steps to qualify for any applicable statutory defenses and limits of liability available under environmental regulations. We believe that we are in substantial compliance with currently applicable environmental laws and regulations.
OPA 90 and regulations promulgated pursuant thereto amend and augment the oil spill provisions of the Clean Water Act and impose a variety of duties and liabilities on “responsible parties” related to the prevention and/or reporting of oil spills and damages resulting from such spills in or threatening U.S. Waters, including the Outer Continental Shelf or adjoining shorelines. A “responsible party” includes the owner or operator of an onshore facility, pipeline or vessel or the lessee or permittee of the area in which an offshore facility is located. OPA 90 assigns liability to each responsible party for containment and oil removal costs, as well as a variety of public and private damages including the costs of responding to a release of oil, natural resource damages, damages for injury to, or economic losses resulting from, destruction of real or personal property of persons who own or lease such affected property. For any vessels, other than “tank vessels,” that are subject to OPA 90, the liability limits are the greater of $1,100 per gross ton or $939,800. A party
cannot take advantage of liability limits if the spill was caused by gross negligence or willful misconduct or resulted from violation of a federal safety, construction or operating regulation. In addition, for an Outer Continental Shelf facility or a vessel carrying crude oil from a well situated on the Outer Continental Shelf, the limits apply only to liability for damages (e.g. natural resources, real or personal property, subsistence use, reserves, profits and earnings capacity, and public services damages). The owner or operator of such facility or vessel is liable for all removal costs resulting from a discharge or substantial threat of discharge without limits. If the party fails to report a spill or to cooperate fully in the cleanup, the liability limits likewise do not apply and certain defenses may not be available. Moreover, OPA 90 imposes on responsible parties the need for proof of financial responsibility to cover at least some costs in a potential spill. As required, we have provided satisfactory evidence of financial responsibility to the USCG for all of our vessels over 300 tons. OPA 90 does not preempt state law, and states may impose liability on responsible parties and requirements for removal beyond what is provided in OPA 90.
OPA 90 also imposes ongoing requirements on a responsible party, including preparedness and prevention of oil spills and preparation of an oil spill response plan. We have engaged the Marine Spill Response Corporation to serve as our Oil Spill Removal Organization for purposes of providing oil spill removal resources and services for our operations in U.S. waters as required by the USCG. In addition, our Tank Vessel Response Plan and Non-Tank Vessel Response Plan have been approved by the USCG.
The Clean Water Act imposes strict controls on the discharge of pollutants into the navigable waters of the United States. The Clean Water Act also provides for civil, criminal and administrative penalties for any unauthorized discharge of oil or other hazardous substances in reportable quantities and imposes liability for the costs of removal and remediation of an unauthorized discharge, including the costs of restoring damaged natural resources. Many states have laws that are analogous to the Clean Water Act and also require remediation of accidental releases of petroleum or other pollutants in reportable quantities. Our OSVs routinely transport diesel fuel to offshore rigs and platforms and also carry diesel fuel for their own use. Our OSVs also transport bulk chemical materials used in drilling activities and liquid mud, which contain oil and oil by-products. We maintain vessel response plans as required by the Clean Water Act to address potential oil and fuel spills.
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, also known as “CERCLA” or “Superfund,” and similar laws impose liability for releases of hazardous substances, pollutants and contaminants into the environment. CERCLA currently exempts crude oil from the definition of hazardous substances for purposes of the statute, but our operations may involve the use or handling of other materials that may be classified as hazardous substances, pollutants and contaminants. CERCLA assigns strict, joint and several liability to each responsible party for response costs, as well as natural resource damages. Under CERCLA, responsible parties include not only owners and operators of vessels but also any person who arranged for the disposal or treatment, or arranged with a transporter for transport for disposal or treatment of hazardous substances, and any person who accepted hazardous substances for transport to and selected the disposal or treatment facilities. Thus, we could be held liable for releases of hazardous substances that resulted from operations by third parties not under our control or for releases associated with practices performed by us or others that were standard in the industry at the time and in compliance with existing laws and regulations.
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulates the generation, transportation, storage, treatment and disposal of onshore hazardous and non-hazardous wastes and requires states to develop programs to ensure the safe treatment, storage and disposal of wastes. States having jurisdiction over our operations also have their own laws governing the generation and management of solid and hazardous waste. We generate non-hazardous wastes and small quantities of hazardous wastes in connection with routine operations. We believe that all of the wastes that we generate are handled in all material respects in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and analogous state statutes.
The USCG's final Ballast Rule became effective on June 21, 2012, and the EPA renewed the Vessel General Permit under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System effective on December 19, 2013. In addition, the International Maritime Organization's, or IMO, International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments otherwise known as the Ballast Water Management Convention, or BWMC, became effective on September 8, 2017. The BWMC has similar standards to that of the USCG and EPA ballast water regulations. These regulations require all our existing vessels to meet certain standards pertaining to ballast water discharges. An exemption to certain compliance requirements in the U.S. is provided for vessels that operate within an isolated geographic region, as determined by the USCG and EPA, respectively. Most of our vessels operating in the GoM are exempt from the ballast water treatment requirements. However, for non-exempt vessels, ballast water treatment equipment may be required to
be utilized on the vessel. The USCG has several approved ballast water treatment systems and, as a result, we will have to become compliant with ballast water treatment requirements that previously were waived in the U.S. Internationally, compliance with IMO’s BWMC is not expected to impact us until 2018 and thereafter, as implementation of these rules is based on the renewal of a vessel’s International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate after September 8, 2017. We have currently estimated the cost of compliance with either the USCG's Ballast Rule or the BWMC to be approximately $250,000 per vessel that is required to be fitted with a treatment system.
The Clean Air Act, or CAA, passed by Congress in 1970 regulates all air pollutants resulting from industrial activities. The 1990 amendments to the CAA established jurisdiction of offshore regions. Proposed and existing facilities and vessels must prepare, as part of their development plans and reporting procedures, detailed emissions data to prove compliance with the CAA and obtain necessary permits. We believe that all of our facilities and vessels have obtained the necessary permits and are operating in all material respects in compliance with the CAA. The EPA also imposed emissions regulations affecting vessels that operate in the United States. These regulations impose standards that may require modifications to our vessels at a cost that we have as yet been unable to estimate. Moreover, the EPA’s decision to regulate “greenhouse gases” as a pollutant may result in further regulations and compliance costs.
Greenhouse gas emissions have increasingly become the subject of international, national, regional, state and local attention. The EPA has adopted regulations under the CAA that require new and existing industrial facilities to obtain permits for carbon dioxide equivalent emissions above emission thresholds. In addition, the EPA adopted rules that mandate reporting of greenhouse gas data and other information by i) industrial sources, ii) suppliers of certain products, and iii) facilities that inject carbon dioxide underground. To the extent that these regulations may apply, we could be responsible for costs associated with complying with such regulations. Cap and trade initiatives to limit greenhouse gas emissions have been introduced in the European Union. Similarly, in prior years, numerous bills related to climate change have been introduced in the U.S. Congress, which could adversely impact most industries. In addition, future regulation of greenhouse gas could occur pursuant to future treaty obligations, statutory or regulatory changes or new climate change legislation in the jurisdictions in which we operate. It is uncertain whether any of these initiatives will be implemented. However, based on published media reports, we believe that it is unlikely that the current proposed initiatives in the U.S. will be implemented without substantial modification. If such initiatives are implemented, we do not believe that such initiatives would have a direct, material adverse effect on our operating results.
Restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions or other related legislative or regulatory enactments could have an effect in those industries that use significant amounts of petroleum products, which could potentially result in a reduction in demand for petroleum products and, consequently and indirectly, our offshore transportation and support services. We are currently unable to predict the manner or extent of any such effect. Furthermore, one of the asserted long-term physical effects of climate change may be an increase in the severity and frequency of adverse weather conditions, such as hurricanes, which may increase our insurance costs or risk retention, limit insurance availability or reduce the areas in which, or the number of days during which, our customers would contract for our vessels in general and in the GoM in particular. We are currently unable to predict the manner or extent of any such effect.
On December 31, 2017, we had 831 employees, including 649 operating personnel and 182 corporate, administrative and management personnel. Excluded from these personnel totals are 78 third-country nationals that we contracted to serve on our vessels as of December 31, 2017. These non-U.S. mariners are typically provided by international crewing agencies. With the exception of 63 employees located in Brazil and Mexico, none of our employees are represented by a union or employed pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement or similar arrangement. We have not experienced any strikes or work stoppages, and our management believes that we continue to experience good relations with our employees.
The table below presents revenues by geographic region for the past three fiscal years (in thousands):
The table below presents net property, plant and equipment by geographic region for the past three fiscal years (in thousands):
Operating in foreign markets presents many political, social and economic challenges. Although we take measures to mitigate these risks, they cannot be completely eliminated. See "Item—1A Risk Factors" for a further discussion of the risks of operating in foreign markets.
Demand for our offshore support services is directly affected by the levels of offshore drilling and production activity. Budgets of many of our customers are based upon a calendar year, and demand for our services has historically been stronger in the second and third calendar quarters when allocated budgets are expended by our customers and weather conditions are more favorable for offshore activities. Many other factors, such as the expiration of drilling leases and the supply of and demand for oil and natural gas, may affect this general trend in any particular year. In addition, we typically have an increase in demand for our vessels to survey and repair offshore infrastructure immediately following major hurricanes or other named storms in the GoM.
WEBSITE AND OTHER ACCESS TO COMPANY REPORTS AND OTHER MATERIALS
Our website address is http://www.hornbeckoffshore.com. We make available on this website, free of charge, access to our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, Proxy Statements and amendments to those reports, as well as other documents that we file with, or furnish to, the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after such documents are filed with, or furnished to, the Commission. We intend to use our website as a means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. Such disclosures will be included on our website under the heading “Investors—IR Home.” Accordingly, investors should monitor such portion of our website, in addition to following our press releases, Commission filings and public conference calls and webcasts. Periodically, we also update our investor presentations which can be viewed on our website. You may read and copy any materials we file with the Commission at the Commission’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, DC 20549. You can obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the Commission at 1-800-732-0330. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the Commission at http://www.sec.gov. Our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Conduct, titled "Navigating with Integrity," (which applies to all employees, including our Chief Executive Officer and certain Financial and Accounting Officers), Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for Members of the Board of Directors, and the charters for our Audit, Nominating/Corporate Governance and Compensation Committees, can all be found on the Investor Relations page of our website under “Corporate Governance”. We intend to disclose any changes to or waivers from the Code of Conduct that would otherwise be required to be disclosed under Item 5.05 of Form 8-K on our website. We will also provide printed copies of these materials to any stockholder upon request to Hornbeck Offshore Services, Inc., Attn: General Counsel, 103 Northpark Boulevard, Suite 300, Covington, Louisiana 70433. The information on our
website is not, and shall not be deemed to be, a part of this report or incorporated into any other filings we make with the Commission.
ITEM 1A—Risk Factors
Our results of operations and financial condition can be adversely affected by numerous risks. You should carefully consider the risks described below as well as the other information we have provided in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The risks described below are not the only ones we face. You should also consider the factors contained in our “Forward Looking Statements” disclaimer found on page ii of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations.
We may not have the funds available or be able to obtain the funds necessary to meet the obligations relating to our 2020 senior notes, our 2021 senior notes, or our New Credit Facility.
Our 2020 senior notes, our 2021 senior notes, and our New Credit Facility, which collectively have a face value of $980.3 million, mature in April 2020, March 2021, and June 2023, respectively. In addition, upon the occurrence of certain change of control events, as defined in the indentures governing the 2020 senior notes and the 2021 senior notes, holders of such notes would have the right to require us to repurchase such notes at 101% of their principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest. We do not expect to have sufficient cash on hand and cash flow from operations to meet all of these obligations as they come due and will need to access additional sources of capital in order to refinance some or all of this indebtedness prior to maturity. There can be no assurance that we will succeed in accessing new capital or, if successful, that the capital we raise will not be expensive or dilutive to stockholders. Failure to meet our obligations related to any tranche of our senior notes may result in the acceleration of our other indebtedness and result in a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
As a result of the declines in oil prices that began in late 2014, our clients have reduced and may further reduce spending on exploration and production projects, resulting in a decrease in demand for our services.
Oil and natural gas prices, and market expectations of potential changes in these prices, significantly impact the level of worldwide drilling and production services activities. Reduced demand for oil and natural gas or periods of surplus oil and natural gas generally result in lower prices for these commodities and often impact the economics of planned drilling projects and ongoing production projects, resulting in the curtailment, reduction, delay or postponement of such projects for an indeterminate period of time. When drilling and production activity and spending declines, both vessel dayrates and utilization for our vessels historically decline as well. This has been the case, beginning in October 2014 and continuing into 2018.
Oil prices worldwide dropped significantly commencing in 2014. While prices have partially recovered, we cannot predict whether current prices are sustainable. Further we do not know whether current prices will result in increased offshore and/or deepwater capital spending by our customers.
A continuation of the prolonged reduction in the overall level of exploration and development activities, whether resulting from changes in oil and gas prices or otherwise, could materially and adversely affect us by negatively impacting:
•our revenues, cash flows and profitability;
•the fair market value of our vessels;
•our ability to maintain or increase our borrowing capacity;
•the collectability of our receivables; and
If any of the foregoing were to occur, it could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.
Increases in the supply of vessels could decrease dayrates.
In addition to our fifth OSV newbuild program, which is nearing completion, certain of our competitors previously announced plans to construct new vessels to be deployed in domestic and foreign locations, thus adding to the available vessel capacity. A remobilization to the GoM oilfield of U.S.-flagged vessels currently operating in other regions or in non-
oilfield applications would result in an increase in vessel capacity in the GoM, one of our core markets. Similarly, vessel capacity in foreign markets, including our core markets of Mexico and Brazil, may also be impacted by U.S.-flagged or other vessels migrating to such foreign locations. Further, a repeal, suspension or significant modification of the Jones Act, or the administrative erosion of its benefits, permitting vessels that are either foreign-flagged, foreign-built, foreign-owned, foreign-controlled or foreign-operated to engage in the U.S. coastwise trade, would also result in an increase in capacity. Any increase in the supply of OSVs or MPSVs, whether through new construction, refurbishment or conversion of vessels from other uses, remobilization or changes in law or its application, could not only increase competition for charters and lower utilization and dayrates, which would adversely affect our revenues and profitability, but could also worsen the impact of the current or any future downturn in the oil and gas industry on our results of operations and financial condition. Because some services provided by MPSVs are not protected by the Jones Act, foreign competitors may bring additional MPSVs to the GoM or build additional MPSVs that we will compete with domestically or internationally for such services.
The level of offshore oil and gas exploration, development and production activity has historically been volatile and is likely to continue to be so in the future. The level of activity is subject to large fluctuations in response to relatively minor changes in a variety of factors that are beyond our control.
Changes in, among others, the following factors can negatively impact our performance:
Commencing in late 2014, we observed a significant decline in oil prices, which caused oil companies to announce and implement significant reductions in their capital spending programs, that is the source of much of our business activity. A prolonged period of reduced oil prices is having and could continue to have a significant adverse and long-term impact on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
The early termination of contracts on our vessels could have an adverse effect on our operations.
Some of the long-term contracts for our vessels and all contracts with governmental entities and national oil companies contain early termination options in favor of the customer; however, some have early termination remedies or other provisions designed to discourage the customers from exercising such options. We cannot assure that our customers would not choose to exercise their termination rights in spite of such remedies or the threat of litigation with us. Until replacement of such business with other customers, any termination could temporarily disrupt our business or otherwise adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. We might not be able to replace such business on economically equivalent terms. In addition, during the current and prior downturns, we have experienced customers requesting contractual concessions even though contrary to existing contractual terms. While not legally required to give concessions, commercial considerations may dictate that we do so, given the relatively few deepwater customers operating in the GoM.
Intense competition in our industry could reduce our profitability and market share.
Contracts for our vessels are generally awarded on an intensely competitive basis. Some of our competitors are willing to accept lower dayrates in order to maintain utilization, which can have a negative impact on our dayrates and utilization. As a result, we could lose customers and market share to these competitors. Similarly, competition in various markets may also be impacted by U.S.-flagged vessels migrating in and out of foreign locations due to the pace of drilling activity in the GoM.
We may not be able to complete the construction of our remaining newbuild program or may experience delays or cost overruns related to that program.
We are currently constructing the last two MPSVs under our pending newbuild program. These vessels are large and complex. We are required to make remaining milestone payments to the shipyard and other vendors totaling approximately $62 million, the majority of which payments will be due in 2019 upon delivery of each vessel from the shipyard. While we have sufficient cash on hand today to meet these obligations, unforeseen events could result in our inability to fund these obligations when they come due, which could have an adverse impact on our business plans, financial condition and results from operations. Additionally, the shipyard is delayed and unforeseen events could result in significant cost overruns for which, under certain circumstances, we might be responsible. Such delays or cost overruns could impact our ability to meet our obligations to the shipyard and could otherwise materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results from operations.
The failure to successfully complete repairs, maintenance and routine drydockings on-schedule and on-budget could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We routinely engage shipyards to drydock our vessels for regulatory compliance and to provide repair and maintenance. These activities are subject to the risks of delay and cost overruns inherent in any large construction project, including shortages of equipment, lack of shipyard availability, unforeseen engineering problems, work stoppages, weather interference, unanticipated cost increases, including costs of steel, inability to obtain necessary certifications and approvals and shortages of materials or skilled labor. Significant delays could result in adverse effects to our anticipated contract commitments or revenues. Significant cost overruns could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We have grown, and may continue to grow, through acquisitions that give rise to risks and challenges that could adversely affect our future financial results.
We regularly consider possible acquisitions of single vessels, vessel fleets and businesses that complement our existing operations to enable us to grow our business. Acquisitions can involve a number of special risks and challenges, including:
Even if we consummate an acquisition, the process of integrating acquired operations into our own may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and costs and may require significant management attention and financial resources. In addition, integrating acquired businesses may impact the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. In the currently depressed market for OSVs, we might not be able to place vessels we acquire into immediate service, which will result in our paying for the cost to stack these vessels and eventually the cost to bring them out of stack, which could be a significant barrier to their utilization if we do not have sufficient liquidity to justify such expenses. Any of the foregoing, and other factors, could harm our ability to achieve anticipated levels of utilization and profitability from acquired vessels or businesses or to realize other anticipated benefits of acquisitions.
We can give no assurance that we will be able to identify desirable acquisition candidates or that we will be successful in entering into definitive agreements or closing such acquisitions on satisfactory terms. An inability to acquire additional vessels or businesses may limit our growth potential.
Our contracts with the United States Government could be impacted by budget cuts.
Our government contracts depend upon annual funding commitments authorized by Congress. In a period of government budget cuts or other political events, our contracts might not be re-authorized, resulting in a material decline in our anticipated revenues.
We are subject to complex laws and regulations, including environmental regulations that can adversely affect the cost, manner or feasibility of doing business.
Increasingly stringent federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations governing worker health and safety and the manning, construction and operation of vessels significantly affect our operations. Many aspects of the marine industry are subject to extensive governmental regulation by the USCG, the National Transportation Safety Board, the EPA and the United States Customs Service, and their foreign equivalents, and to regulation by private industry organizations such as the American Bureau of Shipping. The USCG and the National Transportation Safety Board set safety standards and are authorized to investigate vessel accidents and recommend improved safety standards, while the USCG and Customs Service are authorized to inspect vessels at will. Our operations are also subject to international conventions, federal, state, local and international laws and regulations that control the discharge of pollutants into the environment or otherwise relate to environmental protection. Compliance with such laws, regulations and standards may require installation of costly equipment, increased manning, specific training, and/or operational changes. While we endeavor to comply with all applicable laws, circumstances might exist where we might not come into complete compliance with applicable laws and regulations which could result in administrative and civil penalties, criminal sanctions, imposition of remedial obligations or the suspension or termination of our operations. Some environmental laws impose strict, joint and several liability for remediation of spills and releases of oil and hazardous substances, which could subject us to liability without regard to whether we were negligent or at fault. These laws and regulations may expose us to liability for the conduct of, or conditions caused by, others, including charterers. Moreover, these laws and regulations could change in ways that substantially increase costs that we may not be able to pass along to our customers. Any changes in applicable conventions or laws, regulations or standards that would impose additional requirements or restrictions on our or our oil and gas exploration and production customers’ operations could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. It is possible that laws and regulations may become even more stringent, which could also adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We are also subject to the Merchant Marine Act of 1936, which provides that, upon proclamation by the President of a national emergency or a threat to the security of the national defense, the Secretary of Transportation may requisition or purchase any vessel or other watercraft owned by United States citizens (which includes United States corporations), including vessels under construction in the United States. If one of our OSVs or MPSVs were purchased or requisitioned by the federal government under this law, we would be entitled to be paid the fair market value of the vessel in the case of a purchase or, in the case of a requisition, the fair market value of charter hire. We would also not be entitled to be compensated for any consequential damages we suffer as a result of the requisition or purchase of any of our OSVs or MPSVs. The purchase or the requisition for an extended period of time of one or more of our vessels could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Finally, we are subject to the Merchant Marine Act of 1920, commonly referred to as the Jones Act, which requires that vessels engaged in coastwise trade to carry cargo between U.S. ports be documented under the laws of the United States and be controlled by U.S. citizens. A corporation is not considered a U.S. citizen unless, among other things, at least 75% of the ownership of voting interests with respect to its equity securities are held by U.S. citizens. We endeavor to ensure that we would be determined to be a U.S. citizen as defined under these laws by including in our certificate of incorporation certain restrictions on the ownership of our capital stock by non-U.S. citizens and establishing certain mechanisms to maintain compliance with these laws. If we are determined at any time not to be in compliance with these citizenship requirements, our vessels might become ineligible to engage in the coastwise trade in U.S. domestic waters, and our business and operating results would be adversely affected.
The Jones Act’s provisions restricting coastwise trade to vessels controlled by U.S. citizens have been circumvented in recent years by foreign interests that seek to engage in trade reserved for vessels controlled by U.S. citizens and otherwise qualifying for coastwise trade. Legal challenges against such actions are difficult, costly to pursue and are of uncertain outcome. In addition, the Jones Act is often criticized and there are efforts underway by affected interest groups to seek its repeal. To the extent such efforts are successful and foreign competition is permitted, such competition could have a material adverse effect on domestic companies in the offshore service vessel industry and on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, in the interest of national defense, the Secretary of Homeland Security is authorized to suspend the coastwise trading restrictions imposed by the Jones Act on vessels not controlled by U.S. citizens. Such waivers are granted from time-to-time.
Our business involves many operating risks that may disrupt our business or otherwise result in substantial losses, and insurance may be unavailable or inadequate to protect us against these risks.
Our vessels are subject to operating risks such as:
The occurrence of any of these events may result in damage to or loss of our vessels or other property, injury or death of people or contamination of the environment. If any of these events were to occur, we could be exposed to liability for resulting damages and possible penalties that, pursuant to typical marine indemnity policies, we must pay and then seek reimbursement from our insurer. Affected vessels may also be removed from service and thus be unavailable for income-generating activity. While we believe our insurance coverage is adequate and insures us against risks that are customary in the industry, we may be unable to renew such coverage in the future at commercially reasonable rates. Moreover, existing or future coverage may not be sufficient to cover claims that may arise and we do not maintain insurance for loss of income resulting from a marine casualty.
Our operations in international markets and shipyard activities in foreign shipyards subjects us to risks inherent in conducting business internationally.
We derive a portion of our revenues from foreign sources. In addition, certain of our shipyard repair and procurement activities are being conducted with foreign vendors. We therefore face risks inherent in conducting business internationally, such as legal and governmental regulatory requirements, potential vessel seizure or nationalization of assets, import-export quotas or other trade barriers, difficulties in collecting accounts receivable and longer collection periods, political and economic instability, kidnapping of or assault on personnel, piracy, adverse tax consequences, difficulties and costs of staffing international operations and language and cultural differences. We do not hedge against foreign currency risk. While we endeavor to contract in U.S. Dollars when operating internationally, some contracts may be denominated in a foreign currency, which would result in a foreign currency exposure risk. All of these risks are beyond our control and difficult to insure against. We cannot predict the nature and the likelihood of any such events. If such an event should occur, however, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We may lose the right to operate in some international markets in which we have a presence.
In certain foreign markets in which we operate, most notably Mexico, we sometimes depend upon governmental waivers of cabotage laws. These waivers could be revoked or made more burdensome, which could result in our inability to continue our operations or materially increase the costs of operating in such foreign locations. In addition, our foreign customers are often large state-owned oil companies that have monopolies or near monopolies in their home countries. These companies sometimes impose contractual requirements or restrictions that cannot be negotiated away and that can impose significant operating risks upon us. From time to time, we have challenged these contractual actions in foreign markets, which entails significant risks.
Future results of operations depend on the long-term financial stability of our customers.
Some of the contracts we enter into for our vessels are full utilization contracts with initial terms ranging from one to five years. We enter into these long-term contracts with our customers based on a credit assessment at the time of execution. Our financial condition in any period may therefore depend on the long-term stability and creditworthiness of our customers. We can provide no assurance that our customers will fulfill their obligations under our long-term contracts and the insolvency or other failure of a customer to fulfill its obligations under such contracts could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We may be unable to attract and retain qualified, skilled employees necessary to operate our business.
Our success depends in large part on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled and qualified personnel. Our inability to hire, train and retain a sufficient number of qualified employees could impair our ability to manage, maintain and grow our business.
In crewing our vessels, we require skilled employees who can perform physically demanding work. As a result of the recent volatility of the oil and gas industry, we have significantly reduced our mariner headcount. Additionally, as a result of such volatility, vessel employees and potential employees may choose to pursue employment in fields that offer a more desirable work environment at wage rates that are competitive with ours. Further, unlike the current weak market conditions, during normal market conditions, we face strong competition within the broader oilfield industry for employees and potential employees, including competition from drilling rig operators for our fleet personnel. We may have difficulty hiring employees or finding suitable replacements as needed and, once normal market conditions return, should a reduced pool of workers arise, it is possible that we would have to raise wage rates or increase our benefits offered to attract workers and to retain our current employees. In such circumstances, should we not be able to increase our service rates to our customers to compensate for wage-rate increases or recruit qualified personnel to operate our vessels at full utilization, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Our employees are covered by federal laws that may subject us to job-related claims in addition to those provided by state laws.
Some of our employees are covered by provisions of the Jones Act, the Death on the High Seas Act and general maritime law. These laws preempt state workers’ compensation laws and permit these employees and their representatives to pursue actions against employers for job-related incidents in federal courts based on tort theories.
Because we are not generally protected by the damage limits imposed by state workers’ compensation statutes for these types of claims, we may have greater exposure for any claims made by these employees.
Our success depends on key members of our management, the loss of whom could disrupt our business operations.
We depend to a large extent on the efforts and continued employment of our executive officers and key management personnel. We do not maintain key-man insurance. The loss of services of one or more of our executive officers or key management personnel could have a negative impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Restrictions contained in the indentures governing our 2020 senior notes, our 2021 senior notes, and in the agreement governing our New Credit Facility may limit our ability to obtain additional financing and to pursue other business opportunities.
Covenants contained in the indenture governing our 2020 senior notes, in the indenture governing our 2021 senior notes and in the agreement governing our New Credit Facility require us to meet certain financial tests, which may limit or otherwise restrict:
We have high levels of fixed costs that will be incurred regardless of our level of business activity.
Our business has high fixed costs. Downtime or low productivity due to reduced demand, as is currently being experienced, from weather interruptions or other causes can have a significant negative effect on our operating results and financial condition. In addition, given our recent vessel stackings, our fixed costs are borne by a substantially smaller active fleet of vessels.
Our revenues and operating results may vary significantly from quarter to quarter due to a number of factors such as volatility in our vessel dayrates, changes in utilization, vessel incidents and other unforeseen matters. Many of these factors that may cause our actual financial results to vary from our publicly disclosed earnings guidance and forecasts are outside of our control.
Our actual financial results might vary from those anticipated by us or by securities analysts and investors, and these variations could be material. From time to time we publicly provide various forms of guidance, which reflect our projections about future market expectations and operating performance. The numerous assumptions underlying such guidance may be impacted by factors that are beyond our control and might not turn out to be accurate. Although we believe that the assumptions underlying our projections are reasonable when such projections are made, actual results could be materially different, particularly with respect to our MPSVs.
We are susceptible to unexpected increases in operating expenses such as crew wages, materials and supplies, maintenance and repairs, and insurance costs.
Many of our operating costs, such as crew wages, materials and supplies, maintenance and repairs, and insurance costs, are unpredictable and vary based on events beyond our control. Our gross margins will vary based on fluctuations in our operating costs. If our costs increase or we encounter unforeseen costs, we may not be able to recover such costs from our customers, which could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Stacked vessels may introduce additional operational issues.
In recognition of weak market conditions, we have elected to stack OSVs and MPSVs on various dates since October 1, 2014. We may choose to stack additional vessels should market conditions warrant. In connection with such stackings, we have reduced our mariner headcount significantly. Operationally, we limit the number of persons available to maintain such stacked vessels. Also, we have fewer revenue-producing units in service that can contribute to our
results and contribute cash flows to cover our fixed costs and commitments. When stacked vessels return to service, we will incur previously deferred drydocking costs for regulatory recertifications and may incur costs to hire and train mariners to operate such vessels. Delay in reactivating stacked vessels and the costs and other expenses related to the reactivation of stacked vessels could have a material adverse effect on our cash flows and results of operations.
We may be adversely affected by uncertainty in the global financial markets.
Our future results may be impacted by volatility, weakness or deterioration in the debt and equity capital markets. Inflation, deflation, or other adverse economic conditions may negatively affect us or parties with whom we do business resulting in their non-payment or inability to perform obligations owed to us, such as the failure of customers to honor their commitments, the failure of shipyards and major suppliers to complete orders or the failure by banks to provide expected funding under our revolving credit agreement. Additionally, credit market conditions may slow our collection efforts as customers experience increased difficulty in obtaining requisite financing, potentially leading to lost revenue and higher than normal accounts receivable. This could result in greater expense associated with collection efforts and increased bad debt expense.
Any softening in the global economic recovery may adversely impact our ability to issue additional debt and equity in the future on acceptable terms. We cannot be certain that additional funding will be available if needed and to the extent required, on acceptable terms.
We may be unable to collect amounts owed to us by our customers.
We typically grant our customers credit on a short-term basis. Related credit risks are inherent as we do not typically collateralize receivables due from customers. We provide estimates for uncollectible accounts based primarily on our judgment using historical losses, current economic conditions and individual evaluations of each customer as evidence supporting the receivables valuations stated on our financial statements. However, our receivables valuation estimates may not be accurate and receivables due from customers reflected in our financial statements may not be collectible.
Future changes in legislation, policy, restrictions or regulations for drilling in the United States that cause delays or deter new drilling could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
In response to the April 20, 2010, Deepwater Horizon incident, the regulatory agencies with jurisdiction over oil and gas exploration, including the DOI, imposed temporary moratoria on drilling operations, by requiring operators to reapply for exploration plans and drilling permits that had previously been approved, and by adopting numerous new regulations and new interpretations of existing regulations regarding offshore operations that are applicable to our customers and with which their new applications for exploration plans and drilling permits must prove compliant. Compliance with these new regulations and new interpretations of existing regulations have materially increased the cost of drilling operations in the GoM. These additional compliance costs could materially adversely impact our business, financial position or results of operations.
The fundamental change purchase feature of our 2019 convertible senior notes and the change of control purchase features of our 2020 senior notes and our 2021 senior notes and provisions of our certificate of incorporation, bylaws, stockholder rights plan and Delaware law may delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover attempt of the Company.
The terms of our 2019 convertible senior notes require us to purchase the notes for cash in the event of a fundamental change, as defined in the applicable indenture. Upon a change in control, our 2020 senior notes and our 2021 senior notes require us to repurchase such senior notes at 101% of aggregate principal. A change in control of the Company would trigger the requirement that we purchase the 2019 convertible senior notes, the 2020 senior notes and the 2021 senior notes. A de-listing of the Company would trigger the requirement that we purchase the 2019 convertible senior notes. Furthermore, our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, Delaware corporations law, and our stockholder rights plan contain provisions that could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or discourage a third party from attempting to acquire, control of us. These provisions could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock and may have the effect of delaying or preventing a takeover of the Company that would otherwise be beneficial to investors.
Our stock price has been volatile, declining precipitously from time to time during the period from 2013 through the present, and it could decline again.
The securities markets in general and our common stock in particular have experienced significant price and volume volatility in recent years. The market price and trading volume of our common stock may continue to experience significant fluctuations due not only to general stock market conditions but also to a change in sentiment in the market regarding our operations or business prospects or those of companies in our industry. In addition to the other risk factors discussed above, the price and volume volatility of our common stock may be affected by:
ITEM 1B—Unresolved Staff Comments
Our principal executive offices are in Covington, Louisiana, where we lease approximately 65,000 square feet of office space under a lease with an initial term expiring in September 2025 and three additional five-year renewal periods. Our primary domestic operating office is located in Port Fourchon, Louisiana. We also maintain four international offices from which we operate our fleet of vessels in Mexico and Brazil, as set forth below. For more information, see "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" included within this report. We believe that our facilities, including waterfront locations used for vessel dockage and certain vessel repair work, provide an adequate base of operations for the foreseeable future.
Our principal properties as of December 31, 2017 are as follows:
In addition to the foregoing, our revenues are principally derived from our vessels described in "Item 1—Business" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Item 3—Legal Proceedings
In December 2000, LEEVAC Marine Inc. (a predecessor entity to our current subsidiary Hornbeck Offshore Transportation, LLC, or HOT) was one of several companies that formed a limited liability company, SSIC Remediation, LLC, or SSIC, which conducted interim phase environmental remedial activities at the SBA Shipyards site in Jennings, Louisiana pursuant to a December 9, 2002 Order and Agreement with the EPA. In 2015, the EPA notified SSIC’s counsel of its renewed interest in the site and on September 9, 2016 published a final rule (effective October 11, 2016) adding the site to the General Superfund section of the CERCLA National Priorities List. In November 2016, HOT and nine other parties voluntarily entered into an Administrative Settlement Agreement and Order on Consent to conduct a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, or RIFS, in connection with the site. In 2017, the group submitted a draft RIFS work plan to the EPA, and anticipates commencing RIFS work in 2018 within 90 days of receiving work plan approval from the EPA. HOT has accrued a liability of $0.1 million to cover expenses anticipated to be incurred with respect to conducting the RIFS. HOT’s anticipated percentage of liability for the RIFS cost and subsequent cleanup efforts has decreased from 4.0% to 3.4% due to the addition of new members to the group during 2017. The Company has not made a judgment concerning the ultimate cost of clean up should it be required.
Item 4—Mine Safety Disclosures
Item 5—Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock, $0.01 par value, trades on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the trading symbol “HOS”. The following table sets forth, for the quarterly periods indicated, the high and low sale prices for our common stock as reported by the NYSE during 2017 and 2016.
On January 31, 2018, we had 19 holders of record of our common stock.
We have not previously declared or paid, and we do not plan to declare or pay in the foreseeable future, any cash dividends on our common stock. Our current intention is to retain all additional cash that our business generates to cover all of our growth capital expenditures, commercial-related capital expenditures, annually recurring cash debt service, maintenance capital expenditures, cash income taxes and the retirement of debt. Any future payment of cash dividends or stock or debt repurchases will depend upon our financial condition, capital requirements, plans to reduce our long-term debt and our earnings, as well as other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant. In addition, the indentures governing our 2020 senior notes, our 2021 senior notes and the agreement governing our New Credit Facility include restrictions on our ability to pay cash dividends on our common stock. See "Item 7-Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Note 6 to our consolidated financial statements for further discussion.
See "Item 12-Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters” for information regarding shares of common stock authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans.
Item 6—Selected Financial Data
SELECTED HISTORICAL CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
(In thousands, except operating and per share data)
Our selected historical consolidated financial information as of and for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013, was derived from our audited historical consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP. The data should be read in conjunction with and is qualified in its entirety by reference to “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our historical consolidated financial statements and the notes to those statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In 2013, we closed the sale of our Downstream segment to Genesis Marine, LLC. The historical results for the Downstream segment and the gain on the sale of that segment have been presented as discontinued operations for all periods in the Selected Historical Consolidated Financial Information presented herein.
$1,700 non-cash write-off of goodwill. Excluding these reconciling items from our 2017 results, we would have recorded a net loss of $(91,934) or $(2.49) per diluted share for the year ended December 31, 2017.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We disclose and discuss EBITDA as a non-GAAP financial measure in our public releases, including quarterly earnings releases, investor conference calls and other filings with the Commission. We define EBITDA as earnings (net income) before interest, income taxes, depreciation and amortization. Our measure of EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled measures presented by other companies. Other companies may calculate EBITDA differently than we do, which may limit its usefulness as a comparative measure.
We view EBITDA primarily as a liquidity measure and, as such, we believe that the GAAP financial measure most directly comparable to this measure is cash flows provided by operating activities. Because EBITDA is not a measure of financial performance calculated in accordance with GAAP, it should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for operating income, net income or loss, cash flows provided by operating, investing and financing activities, or other income or cash flow statement data prepared in accordance with GAAP.
EBITDA is widely used by investors and other users of our financial statements as a supplemental financial measure that, when viewed with our GAAP results and the accompanying reconciliations, we believe EBITDA provides additional information that is useful to gain an understanding of the factors and trends affecting our ability to service debt, pay deferred taxes and fund drydocking charges and other maintenance capital expenditures. We also believe the disclosure of EBITDA helps investors meaningfully evaluate and compare our cash flow generating capacity from quarter to quarter and year to year.
EBITDA is also a financial metric used by management (i) as a supplemental internal measure for planning and forecasting overall expectations and for evaluating actual results against such expectations; (ii) as a significant criteria for annual incentive cash bonuses paid to our executive officers and other shore-based employees; (iii) to compare to the EBITDA of other companies when evaluating potential acquisitions; and (iv) to assess our ability to service existing fixed charges and incur additional indebtedness.
The following table provides the detailed components of EBITDA, as we define that term, for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, and 2013 respectively (in thousands).
The following table reconciles EBITDA to cash flows provided by operating activities for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, and 2013 respectively (in thousands).
In addition, we have also historically made certain adjustments, as applicable, to EBITDA for losses on early extinguishment of debt, stock-based compensation expense and interest income, to internally evaluate our performance based on the computation of ratios used in certain financial covenants of our credit agreements with various lenders, whenever applicable. We believe that such ratios can, at times, be material components of financial covenants and, when applicable, failure to comply with such covenants could result in the acceleration of indebtedness or the imposition of restrictions on our financial flexibility.
The following table provides certain detailed adjustments to EBITDA, as defined in our New Credit Facility for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, and 2013, respectively (in thousands).
Adjustments to EBITDA for Computation of Financial Ratios Used in Debt Covenants
Set forth below are the material limitations associated with using EBITDA as a non-GAAP financial measure compared to cash flows provided by operating activities.
Management compensates for the above-described limitations in using EBITDA as a non-GAAP financial measure by only using EBITDA to supplement our GAAP results.
Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our historical consolidated financial statements and their notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current views with respect to future events and financial performance. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements or as a result of certain factors such as those set forth in our Forward Looking Statements disclaimer on page ii of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Oil prices remain at low levels compared to prices that prevailed between 2005 and late 2014. These lower oil prices have caused major, international and independent oil companies with deepwater operations to significantly reduce their capital spending budgets, which are the principal demand drivers for our services. Less spending by our customers combined with a global oversupply of OSVs for current market conditions, including high-spec OSVs in our core markets, have resulted in significant reductions in our dayrates and utilization.
The principal question facing the industry is the duration of the current downturn. Our current view is that market conditions will remain weak for all or most of 2018. However, given the recent improvement in oil prices, global economic improvement, growth in oil demand and lower exploration and development costs achieved by our customers, we believe that the necessary elements for improved conditions in our market may be taking shape. While impossible to predict, this market improvement may take-hold as early as 2019. However, a loss of confidence in oil price recovery or an inability by our customers to sustain cost improvements could derail or postpone a recovery.
While we have taken extensive measures to reduce costs, these reductions alone will not be sufficient to mitigate the full impact of revenue loss over an extended period of time. Even in light of our currently depressed operating levels, cash generated from operations together with cash on hand and availability under the New Credit Facility should be sufficient to fund our operations and commitments through the end of 2019. However, absent the combination of a significant recovery of market conditions such that cash flow from operations were to increase materially from projected levels coupled with a refinancing and/or further management of our funded debt obligations, we do not currently expect to have sufficient liquidity to repay the full amount of our remaining tranches of 2020 senior notes and 2021 senior notes when they mature in fiscal years 2020 and 2021, respectively, even if a market recovery were to begin in 2018 or 2019. The New Credit Facility was the first step in addressing the maturities of our unsecured notes. We remain fully cognizant of the challenges currently facing the offshore oil and gas industry and continue to review our capital structure and assess our strategic options.
In the GoM, three high-spec OSVs were delivered into the domestic market during 2017. We expect an additional nine high-spec OSVs to be delivered into domestic service during 2018. We do not anticipate significant growth in the supply of high-spec OSVs beyond the currently anticipated level of 205 of such vessels by the end of 2018. During the fourth quarter of 2017, there was an average of roughly 33 floating rigs available in the GoM, while an average of only 21.2 were working. As of February 7, 2018, there were 34 rigs available and 21 were working. However, seven floating rigs have contracts that will expire during the remainder of 2018. We do not know whether the remaining rigs will receive contract renewals for operations in the GoM. One additional rig arrived in the GoM since the beginning of 2018. No additional rigs are expected to arrive before the end of 2018. We expect three rigs to depart from the GoM during 2018. Once a rig arrives in the GoM, it can take several months to commence work and, therefore, we do not know the timing of when operations of newly arrived rigs will begin, if at all. Given these market conditions, we anticipate our average dayrates and utilization levels for our OSVs operating in the GoM will continue to be depressed for the foreseeable future. However, the GoM is one of the premier deepwater markets in the world and we are committed to supporting our customers in this market. We believe that once the current supply and demand fundamentals return to more normal conditions, our results from operations will improve. Unlike our OSVs, whose utilization are tied principally to drilling activities, we have seen improved demand for our MPSVs in recent quarters. These vessels are used for a wide variety of oilfield applications that are not necessarily related to drilling. Because of the need to continuously inspect, repair and maintain offshore infrastructure, our MPSVs have, in recent quarters, partially counter-acted weakness in overall drilling activities. However, we have not seen a significant pick up in the expansion of offshore infrastructure, such as field development that more meaningfully drives MPSV utilization.
In recognition of these weak market conditions, we stacked OSVs and MPSVs on various dates commencing on October 1, 2014. As of December 31, 2017, we had 42 OSVs stacked. As of February 7, 2018, we had 44 OSVs stacked. These 44 stacked vessels represent 63% of our fleetwide vessel headcount, and 45% of our total OSV and MPSV deadweight tonnage. We may consider stacking additional vessels or reactivating vessels as market conditions warrant. By stacking vessels, we have significantly reduced our on-going cash outlays and lowered our risk profile; however, we also have fewer revenue-producing units in service that can contribute to our results and produce cash flows to cover our fixed costs and commitments. While we may choose to stack additional vessels should market conditions warrant, our current expectation is to retain our active fleet in the market to accept contracts at the best available terms even if such contracts are below our breakeven cash cost of operations.
There have been six auctions completed since energy reform began in Mexico in 2013, including two deepwater and two shallow water tenders. So far, these auctions have yielded 58 contracts with forecasted investment over their lifetime of $134.3 billion. The next deepwater lease auctions are scheduled for March and July 2018, respectively. However, questions remain on the timing of the incremental activity expected in the Mexican deepwater GoM as a result of these auctions. As a result of leases awarded during the initial shallow water lease round in 2016, two operators announced major discoveries in mid-July 2017. We have observed a dispute over resource ownership between the country of Mexico and the new international companies that have experienced recent drilling success in fields adjacent to PEMEX-owned fields. This dispute may slow down drilling plans until the ownership issue is resolved. We consider Mexico to be a long-term market for our services, especially in light of energy reforms expected to be carried out there. We continue to explore opportunities to place additional vessels into Mexico to support PEMEX in its ongoing shallow water activity and non-PEMEX customers in support of future shelf and deepwater activity there.
In Brazil, Petrobras has moved towards an "all Brazilian flag" vessel fleet, which has limited opportunities in Brazil for foreign-flagged vessels, except where highly specialized services are required. In January 2016, we placed one of our newbuild HOSMAX 310 class OSVs into Brazilian registry and have imported that vessel into Brazil. In October 2016, Brazil enacted new legislation that will allow international oil companies to participate as operators of pre-salt offshore developments, reversing a policy that had reserved such properties to Petrobras, exclusively. By doing so, the Brazilian government has created the possibility that foreign operators might spur additional exploration and development activity that has been dampened by low oil prices and Petrobras' difficulties. Recently, the Brazilian National Petroleum Agency announced that a fourth round of auctions for the pre-salt areas will be held in June 2018. The outcome of this bidding process is viewed positively for growing the participation of international oil companies in the Brazilian offshore sector, which is one of our core markets.
All of our current vessels are qualified under the Jones Act to engage in U.S. coastwise trade, except for nine foreign-flagged new generation OSVs and two foreign-flagged MPSVs. As of December 31, 2017, our 20 active new generation OSVs, eight MPSVs and four managed OSVs were operating in domestic and international areas as noted in the following table:
OSV Newbuild Program #5. Our fifth OSV newbuild program consists of four 300 class OSVs, five 310 class OSVs, ten 320 class OSVs, three 310 class MPSVs and two 400 class MPSVs. As of February 7, 2018, we had delivered and placed in service 22 vessels under such newbuild program. Delivery of the two remaining vessels under this 24-vessel domestic newbuild program is expected to occur during the second and third quarters of 2019. With the addition of the two MPSVs, we expect to own ten MPSVs as of December 31, 2019. These MPSV additions result in a
projected average MPSV fleet complement of 8.0, 9.0 and 10.0 vessels for the fiscal years 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively. The aggregate cost of our fifth OSV newbuild program, excluding construction period interest, is expected to be approximately $1,335.0 million, approximately 95.3% of which has already been incurred. For further information regarding our fifth OSV newbuild program, please refer to the Capital Expenditures and Related Commitments section.
Our operating costs are primarily a function of fleet size, areas of operations and utilization levels. The most significant direct operating costs are wages paid to vessel crews, maintenance and repairs, and marine insurance. Because most of these expenses are incurred regardless of vessel utilization, our direct operating costs as a percentage of revenues may fluctuate considerably with changes in dayrates and utilization. As of December 31, 2017, we had 42 stacked vessels. By removing these vessels from our active operating fleet, we have been able to significantly reduce our operating costs, including crew costs. If market conditions worsen, we may elect to stack additional vessels. Our fixed operating costs are now spread over 28 owned and operated vessels and four vessels managed for the U.S. Navy.
In certain foreign markets in which we operate, we are susceptible to higher operating costs, such as materials and supplies, crew wages, maintenance and repairs, taxes, importation duties, and insurance costs. Difficulties and costs of staffing international operations, including vessel crews, and language and cultural differences generally contribute to a higher cost structure in foreign locations compared to our domestic operations. We may not be able to recover higher international operating costs through higher dayrates charged to our customers. Therefore, when we increase our international complement of vessels, our gross margins may fluctuate depending on the foreign areas of operation and the complement of vessels operating domestically.
In addition to the operating costs described above, we incur fixed charges related to the depreciation of our fleet and amortization of costs for routine drydock inspections to ensure compliance with applicable regulations and to maintain certifications for our vessels with the USCG and various classification societies. The aggregate number of drydockings and other repairs undertaken in a given period determines the level of maintenance and repair expenses and marine inspection amortization charges. We capitalize costs incurred for drydock inspection and regulatory compliance and amortize such costs over the period between such drydockings, typically 30 months. Applicable maritime regulations require us to drydock our vessels twice in a five-year period for inspection and routine maintenance and repair. If we undertake a disproportionately large number of drydockings in a particular fiscal period, comparability of results may be affected. While we can defer required drydockings of stacked vessels, we will be required to conduct such deferred drydockings prior to such vessels returning to service, which could delay their return to active service.
Critical Accounting Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. In many cases, the accounting treatment of a particular transaction is specifically dictated by GAAP. In other circumstances, we are required to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that we believe are reasonable based upon available information. We base our estimates and judgments on historical experience and various other factors that we believe are reasonable based upon the information available. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions and conditions. We believe that of our significant accounting policies discussed in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements, the following may involve estimates that are inherently more subjective.
Carrying Value of Vessels. We depreciate our OSVs and MPSVs over estimated useful lives of 25 years each. Salvage value for our new generation marine equipment is typically 25% of the originally recorded cost for these asset types. In assigning depreciable lives to these assets, we have considered the effects of both physical deterioration largely caused by wear and tear due to operating use and other economic and regulatory factors that could impact commercial viability. To date, our experience confirms that these policies are reasonable, although there may be events or changes in circumstances in the future that indicate that recovery of the carrying amount of our vessels might not be possible.
We presently review our vessels for impairment using the following asset groups: New Generation OSVs and MPSVs. Management has concluded that these groupings are appropriate because our vessels are highly relevant and mobile and are consistent based on the operating and marketing characteristics desired by our customers. When analyzing asset groups for impairment, we consider both historical and projected operating cash flows, operating income, and EBITDA based on current operating environment and future conditions that we can reasonably anticipate,
such as inflation or prospective wage costs. These projections are based on, but not limited to, job location, current and historical market dayrates included in recent sales proposals, utilization and contract coverage; along with anticipated market drivers, such as drilling rig movements, results of offshore lease sales and discussions with our customers regarding their ongoing drilling plans. We also consider recent vessel sales and recent vessel appraisals.
If events or changes in circumstances as set forth above were to indicate that the asset group’s carrying amount may not be recoverable, we would then be required to estimate the undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset group and its eventual disposition. If the sum of the expected future cash flows was determined to be less than the carrying amount of the vessel, we would be required to reduce the carrying amount to fair value. Examples of events or changes in circumstances that could indicate that the recoverability of the carrying amount of our asset groups should be assessed might include a significant change in regulations such as OPA 90, a significant decrease in the market value of the asset group and current period operating or cash flow losses combined with a history of operating or cash flow losses or a projection or forecast that demonstrates continuing losses associated with the asset group.
During the second quarter of 2016, we identified indicators of impairment relating to our vessels. As required by applicable accounting guidance, we calculated the undiscounted cash flows using a probability weighted forecast for each of our asset groups over their respective remaining useful lives. The total of the undiscounted cash flows was greater than the net book values of our asset groups and, therefore, we concluded that we did not have an impairment to our long-lived assets as of June 30, 2016. In the development of the undiscounted cash flows, in addition to the previously discussed considerations above and in light of current market conditions, we estimate the length of time it takes for the market to absorb our stacked vessels and return those vessels to active status. Any significant revisions to this estimate would have the greatest impact in the development of the undiscounted cash flows. If the estimate of the return to active status for our stacked vessels were to be two years longer than our current estimate, the undiscounted cash flows would decrease by approximately 10%, but would still be greater than the respective net book values. See Note 5 to our consolidated financial statements included herein for further discussion. While we have not observed any new impairment indicators since the second quarter of 2016, we have reviewed and updated, as necessary, the assumptions used in determining our undiscounted cash flow projections for each asset group to reflect current and projected market conditions. After reviewing the result of these projections, we have determined that each of our asset groups has sufficient projected undiscounted cash flows to recover the remaining book value of our long-lived assets within such group. We will continue to closely monitor market conditions and potential impairment indicators as long as this market downturn persists.
Recertification Costs. Our vessels are required by regulation to be recertified after certain periods of time. These recertification costs are incurred while the vessel is in drydock where other routine repairs and maintenance are performed and, at times, major replacements and improvements are performed. We expense routine repairs and maintenance as they are incurred. Recertification costs can be accounted for in one of two ways: (1) defer and amortize or (2) expense as incurred. We defer and amortize recertification costs over the length of time that the recertification is expected to last, which is generally 30 months. Major replacements and improvements, which extend the vessel’s economic useful life or functional operating capability, are capitalized and depreciated over the vessel’s remaining economic useful life. Inherent in this process are judgments we make regarding whether the specific cost incurred is capitalizable and the period that the incurred cost will benefit.
Revenue Recognition. We charter our vessels to customers under time charters based on a daily rate of hire and recognize revenue as earned on a daily basis during the contract period of the specific vessel.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts. Our customers are primarily national oil companies, major and independent, domestic and international, oil and gas and oil service companies. Our customers are granted credit on a short-term basis and related credit risks are considered minimal. We usually do not require collateral. We provide an estimate for uncollectible accounts based primarily on management’s judgment. Management uses the relative age of receivable balances, historical losses, current economic conditions and individual evaluations of each customer to make adjustments to the allowance for doubtful accounts. Our historical losses have not been significant. However, because amounts due from individual customers can be significant, future adjustments to the allowance can be material if one or more individual customer’s balances are deemed uncollectible.
Income Taxes. We follow accounting standards for income taxes that require the use of the liability method of computing deferred income taxes. Under this method, deferred income taxes are provided for the temporary differences between the financial reporting basis and the tax basis of our assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The assessment of the realization of deferred tax
assets, particularly those related to tax net operating loss, or NOL, carryforwards and foreign tax credit, or FTC, carryforwards, involves the use of management’s judgment to determine whether it is more likely than not that we will realize such tax benefits in the future prior to their expiration. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act was signed into law in the U.S. on December 22, 2017. The primary impact of this legislation was a reduction of the corporate statutory income tax rate from 35% to 21% generally effective as of January 1, 2018. The impact of the deferred tax rate and tax law changes are required to be reflected in the period in which the law is enacted. As a result, the Company repriced its net deferred tax liabilities, which resulted in a favorable tax impact of $125.2 million and was recorded as a discrete item during the fourth quarter of 2017. We continue to review our projected operating results related to the realization of these NOL and FTC carryforwards and, during 2017, we recorded a valuation allowance of $33.1 million because we determined that it was more likely than not such NOL and FTC carryforwards may not be utilized prior to their expiration. In addition, each reporting period, we assess and adjust for any significant changes to our liability for unrecognized income tax benefits. We account for any interest and penalties relating to uncertain tax positions in general and administrative expenses.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense. All equity-settled share-based payments to employees and directors, including grants of stock options and restricted stock units, are recognized over the vesting period in the income statement based on their fair values at the date of grant. All cash-settled share-based payments to employees and directors are recognized in the income statement based on their fair values at the end of the reporting period over their vesting period.
Legal Contingencies. We are involved in a variety of claims, lawsuits, investigations and proceedings, as described in Note 10 to our consolidated financial statements. We determine whether an estimated loss from a contingency should be accrued by assessing whether a loss is deemed probable and can be reasonably estimated. We assess our potential liability by analyzing our litigation and regulatory matters using available information. We develop our views on estimated losses in consultation with outside counsel handling our defense in these matters, which involves an analysis of potential results, assuming a combination of litigation and settlement strategies. Should developments in any of these matters cause a change in our determination such that we expect an unfavorable outcome and result in the need to recognize a material accrual, or should any of these matters result in a final adverse judgment or be settled for a significant amount, they could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations in the period or periods in which such change in determination, judgment or settlement occurs.
Results of Operations
The tables below set forth the average dayrates, utilization rates and effective dayrates for our owned new generation OSVs and the average number and size of such vessels owned during the periods indicated. These vessels generate a substantial portion of our revenues. Excluded from the OSV information below is the results of operations for our MPSVs, our shore-base facility, and vessel management services, including the four vessels managed for the U.S. Navy. The Company does not provide average or effective dayrates for its MPSVs. MPSV dayrates are impacted by highly variable customer-required cost-of-sales associated with ancillary equipment and services, such as ROVs, accommodation units and cranes, which are typically recovered through higher dayrates charged to the customer. Due to the fact that each of our MPSVs have a workload capacity and significantly higher income generating potential than each of the Company’s new generation OSVs, the utilization and dayrate levels of our MPSVs could have a very large impact on our results of operations. For this reason, our consolidated operating results, on a period-to-period basis, are disproportionately impacted by the level of dayrates and utilization achieved by our eight MPSVs.